Joists, more commonly known as I-joists, are long parallel beams that can be made from solid dimensional lumber or engineered wood. Wood I-joists were first developed in 1969. Wood I-joists get their name from their cross section that looks like the capital letter I. They are made up of a top and bottom flange separated by a vertical web. The flanges can be made from lumber or engineered wood. The flanges are grooved on one side and the web is usually OSB or in some cases plywood. The webs and flanges are assembled with a water-resistant glue. The I-joist is used for floor and roof joists, wall studs and roof rafters in both residential and commercial construction. The advantage of the I-joist is they will not bow, crown, twist, cup check or split in contrast to a dimensional piece of lumber.
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Oriented strand board (OSB) has a greater load-bearing capacity than milled wood panels. OSB is particularly suited as sheathing on walls, floors, sub-flooring, roof decking and is a versatile, less expensive alternative to plywood. Flame Safe fire retardant OSB sheathing is manufactured from layers of thin wooden strips, arranged in cross-oriented layers, compressed and bonded together with synthetic resin adhesives and wax, and Flame Safe fire retardant coated. The OSB wooden strips are usually from the Poplar and Aspen trees, but can also be from the fast growing and smaller trees. OSB panels have similar properties to plywood, but OSB has no internal gaps or voids, is uniform and less expensive.